Glossary of Printing Terms:F


A number that indicates the size of the lens opening on an adjustable camera. The common f-numbers are f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, and f/22. The larger the f-number, the smaller the lens opening. In this series, f/1.4 is the largest lens opening and f/22 is the smallest.

Also called f-stops, they work in conjunction with shutter speeds to indicate exposure settings.


The numeric value assigned to the range of aperture or lens openings such as f-2.8 or f-3. The smaller the f-value, the greater the amount of light coming through the lens.


A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.

Faber und Faber Verlag

A publishing house founded in 1990 in Leipzig; has, according to information from the company, produced the world’s smallest book ever to have been manufactured in a production run. Measuring just 2.4 × 2.9 mm, the copies were bound in leather by hand.

The volume is entitled “Bilder ABC” (“Picture ABC”) and contains images of letters by Josua Reichert.


A word used to describe the photo of Fabio and Nan McCarthy, author of the cybernovel CHAT. If you find this fabiolous photo on the Rainwater Press Web site and tell us the secret password, you’ll receive 10% off CHAT when you order directly from Rainwater Press.

  1. An abbreviation for typeface.

  2. The opening edge, which is opposite of the spine, of a bound publication.

Face Cut Label

A pressure sensitive label that has the facestock die cut to the liner and the matrix has been removed.

Face In

Indicates that the face copy of a roll product is wound to the inside of the roll

Face Material

Any paper, film, fabric, laminate or foil material suitable for converting into pressure sensitive label stock. In the finished construction, this web is bonded to the adhesive layer and becomes the functional part of the construction.

Face Out

Indicates that the face copy of a roll product is wound to the outside of the roll.

Face Slit

A slit die cut on the face of the label or a tab slit at one end to make the labels easier to remove from the liner. Also referred to as slit face and split face.

Face Trim

The trim removed from the face or side opposite from the backbone of a magazine.


The face material, such as paper, film, plastic, fabric and foil, that is used as the top layer of the label and is the layer that is applied to another surface.

Facing Identification Mark


A series of vertical bars printed in the upper right corner, to the left of the postage area on the mail piece. The bars are used by automated postal equipment to identify, separate and orient reply mail.

Facing Page

A page that forms a spread.

  1. Term derived from the Latin generally used to describe the most natural possible reproduction of an original (image, handwriting, book) complete with all its characteristics including dirty marks, damage or traces of use.

This is the highest degree of similarity which a reproduction can achieve in comparison to the original, whereby nothing is added, omitted or improved.

Copyists in the Middle Ages were already trying to achieve reproductions of texts and books which were true to the originals by writing them out and illustrating them by hand.

The first full facsimiles date from the early 17th century, and were engraved in copper. Facsimiles were also produced using the wood engraving method. T

he invention of lithography in the late 18th century and collotype in the mid 19th century made facsimiles as we understand them today possible.

  1. A copy that looks like the original printing of a book but is not original. Facsimiles can be a source of frustration to collectors and booksellers but are acceptable for some institutional library collections.

The term can also refer to one or more pages or illustrations that have been reproduced or copied to replace parts of the book that are missing.

Facsimile Transmission

The process of transmitting an image so that a likeness of that image can be recorded.

The image is scanned and converted into electrical signals which then can be transmitted.

Fact Checker

Editorial staff position in charge of verifying factual statements contained in copy before it is published.

Fadeout Halftone

A general reduction in the overall contrast of a halftone, to allow type to be easily readable when printed over it.


Refers to the condition of a book; describes the loss of color on the pages, dust jacket, or the cover of the book, which is usually caused by time or exposure to sunlight.

See also Darkening.


Full auto frames (trapping)

Fair Use

The legal use of a limited portion of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright owner for the purpose of newswriting, for example.

Fake Duotone

A two-color reproduction, using single halftone negative, usually blank, and a halftone screen tint for the background, usually in color.


The process of producing a color illustration by using one image as a key and manually making the other separations from it.

False Band

A fake raised band that is attached directly to the spine of the book or the hollow of the cover.

This decorative element is designed to make the book look sturdier than it actually is.

Fan Guide

A sample booklet of colors used for choosing and specifying color in which the pages fan out so that various colors can be compared.

Fanapart Gluing

A type of edge gluing for carbonless forms. The collated sets are put into stacks and then the edge that is to be fastened has a special adhesive applied to it. Once the adhesive dries, they are separated into individual sets by fanning the stack.


Continuous multiple ply form manufactured from a single wide web which is folded longitudinally.


A term used to describe the method of folding continuous sheets into a stack. The continuous web of paper has tractor feedholes and perforations which are later detached to form individual sheets. The forms are folded back and forth on these perforations before detaching to make a large continuous stack. They are used in impact printers and some laser printers.


In printing, distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain.


Frequently Asked Questions

A listing of the most commonly received queries on a website to which users may refer to in order to check if their question has already been asked and to hopefully answered.

Fast Colors

Colors that hold their density and resist fading when exposed to light, acids, alkalies and other stimulus.

Fast Film

Film that requires relatively little light to record an image.

Fast-Drying Ink

An ink that dries soon after printing.

Fastback Binding System

Powis Parkeris unique thermal binding system that allows you to make tape bound, perfect-bound and hard cover books one at a time in an office environment.


A method of attaching one part to another.


A USPS-licensed automated system that updates addresses by identifying names and addresses for which current change-of-address orders are on file. A piece updated with FASTforward can be delivered directly to the new address rather than forwarded from the old address.

FASTforward systems interface with USPS-approved automation systems such as multilane optical character readers (MLOCRs) and remote video encoding (RVE) operations. FASTforward is available in two applications.

The Mailing List Correction application updates computerized name and address mailing lists before mail piece creation. The MLOCR/RVE application provides an “on-piece” address correction during mail processing before deposit into the mail stream.

Fat Face

Type that is quite varied in its use of very thin and very wide strokes.



From Latin “fac simile”, “make similar”, i.e. “make a copy” – or telefacsimile) is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network.

A fax machine is essentially an image scanner, a modem, and a computer printer combined into a highly specialized package.

The scanner converts the content of a physical document into a digital image, the modem sends the image data over a phone line, and the printer at the other end makes a duplicate of the original document.


Folding Box Board

Multi-layer board, often mineral-coated, with an outer layer of sulphate (kraft) pulp and middle layer of mechanical pulp (groundwood, pressure groundwood or TMP; in top grades CTMP pulp may also be applied); used primarily for consumer cartons for packaging of dry and moist foods, cigarettes and other consumer products; also used in the graphic industry for catalogue covers, postcards and folders, etc.


Forms Control Buffer


Fiber Distributed Data Interface.

A standard for sending digital data over fiber optic media on local area networks and offering a network speed of 100Mbps.


Forms Data Format


Forms Description Language

A keyword oriented language that describes the appearance of forms including lines, boxes, text, etc.


Frame Decision Lists

A file format used in publishing workflow that enables a more efficient and automated process for trapping procedures on new work and a memory capable of storing templates of previous work for future use.

Feather Edge
  1. An edge on carbon paper that is uncoated tissue. On forms, this edge will extend beyond the bottom edge of the form parts and can be used for extraction purposes.

  2. Also referred to as the deckle edge on paper.

  1. When ink spreads as it soaks into the paper, causing the image to lose its sharpness.

  2. Vertically justifing a column by adding a small amount of leading to the text.


Refers to extreme lightness in regard to bulk. Lightweight book and writing papers, also used for airmail paper.


These can be heights of the letter groups, stems or rounds of a group, and serifs.

Feed Rollers

On a printing press, the rubber wheels that move the sheets of paper from the feed pile to the grippers.

Feed Slots

Round or rectangular holes or slits put in pressure sensitive label stock to maintain the register of pressure sensitive labels while they are being printed or imprinted.


The section of a printing press that separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing.

Feeding Unit

Component of a printing press that moves paper into the register unit.


An individual’’s interpretation of a paper’’s finish and stiffness.



This term refers usually to the speed of a papermaking machine in terms of how many feet per minute the forming web of paper traverses the length of the machine.


Woven, endless belt made of wool, cotton or synthetic materials used to transport the paper web on the paper machine, during manufacture.

Felts act as a conveyor while at the same time removing water from paper as it progresses through the paper machine.

Felt Finish

A soft texture on uncoated paper that is created during the papermaking process with either a felt covered roller or with a rubber roller with a felt pattern that creates the finish.

Felt Side

The top side of the paper as it is formed on the wire as it goes through the paper machine. It is the side recommended for the best printing results.


the Federation of European Publishers

The representative body for publishers in Europe, based in Brussels.

Ferro-Gallic Ink

A very durable ink that consists of gallic acid, iron sulfate and in some cases a binder (gum arabic) and that has been known for several centuries. The ink was used for documents of all kinds until the advent of chemical dyes in the recent past.

When first applied, pure ferro-gallic ink has a pale color; only when exposed to atmospheric oxygen does it form a distinctly black pigment. It is insoluble in water and thus very difficult to remove.

After extended periods of time, ferro-gallic ink decomposes paper and parchment, causing what is known as ink corrosion.


A book containing a number of scholarly essays printed in honor of an individual.


An easy to use, full-featured FTP client for the Apple Macintosh. Fetch 4.0 includes all the standard features of a modern FTP client, presented in a user interface that is straightforward and easy to use. The most important job of an FTP client is to move files, and Fetch makes this as easy as pressing the “Put…” and “Get…” buttons, or simply dragging file icons between Fetch and the Finder.

You can transfer not only files, but also entire folders and directories, with a single command. Fetch was the first MAC FTP client to support resuming downloads, and now in version 4.0 that functionality is available even if you have quit Fetch or your computer has crashed in mid-transfer.

Fetch is compatible with a wide range of FTP servers, from mainframes and high-end servers to Macintosh and Windows computers, and even servers embedded in prepress, image processing, and medical imaging systems.


Forschungsgesellschaft Druckmaschinen

An association for printing press research founded in 1955 by leading German printing press manufacturers as a non-profit organization.

Headquartered in Frankfurt, the association works to coordinate the printing press industry and research activities in the field of printing presses and processes; also works in close collaboration with the Institut für Druckmaschinen und Druckverfahren (Institute for Printing Presses and Printing Processes) in Darmstadt.


Thread-like particles used in making wood pulps.

Fiber Coarseness

Weight per unit length of fiber.

Fiber Orientation

Refers to the alignment of the fibers in the sheet. The degree of alignment can be controlled in the paper making process.

Fiber-Added Paper

Fiber additives such as wood chips, colored cotton fibers and colored rayon fibers used to enhance the visual appearance of a sheet. Fox River offers a wide variety of fiber-added papers.


An inexpensive paperboard made from woodpulp and generally contains waste paper. It is usually gray or brown in color. Also referred to as chipboard or cardboard.


String-like elements that are loosened from the paper fibers during the beating process. They aid in the bonding processes when paper is being manufactured.


Act of loosening the fibrillae during the mechanical process of beating the fibers in preparation for papermaking.


A particular item of information in a data record. In databases, fields are the smallest units of accessible information and records consist of one or more fields. In spreadsheets, fields are known as cells.

Field Length

The size of a data field measured in number of bytes or characters.

Fifth Color

Although there can be many additional colors, in addition to the four CMYK process printing inks, a single fifth color is the most common.

Often this is the corporate color of a company’s logo or corporate identity, which needs to be reproduced accurately.


A collection of related records, stored under a file name. A named set of records stored or processed as a unit.

File Format

The system by which data is held in a particular type of computer file.

File Fragmentation

When files are enlarged and saved on a crowded disk, that disk may no longer contain contiguous blocks of free space to hold them so they are saved as fragmented parts on separate parts of the disk which eventually slows down read-write access time of that file..

File Hole Punching

Holes punched, a specific distance from each other, into the edge of a page to allow the page to be stored in a ring binder or some other type of filing device.

File Server

A computer storage device that stores files which users on a network are linked to and have access.

File Transfer

To copy a file from one computer to another over a network.

File Transfer Protocol


A TCP/IP protocol that is commonly used for transferring files from computer to computer. FTP requires a user ID and possibly a password to gain access.

Filename Extension

A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format.

It is commonly used to infer information about what sort of data might be stored in the file.

The description above is meant to mostly explain the intent of filename extensions: a true definition, giving the criterion for deciding what part of the file name is its extension, belongs to the rules of the specific filesystem used; most times the extension is the substring which follows the last occurrence, if any, of the dot character (e.g. “txt” is the extension of the filename “readme.txt”, “html” the extension of “mysite.index.html”).

On filesystems on mainframe systems such as MVS, VMS, and PC systems such as CP/M and derivative systems such as Microsoft DOS, the extension is actually a separate namespace from the filename.

This is different from Unix-like operating systems, where filesystems do not actually support the notion of an extension, where a suffix is not a separate namespace, and where even having a suffix is voluntary for executables, as permissions are used to decide whether a file is executable.


Maximum width of paper that can be made on any given paper machine.


Refers to open areas of small type or halftones filling in with ink causing a blotchy looking area.

Fill-In Light

Additional light from a lamp, flash, or reflector; used to soften or fill in the shadows or dark picture areas caused by the brighter main light. Called fill-in flash when electronic flash is used.


Additives used in paper manufacturing process to fill gaps between paper fibers in order to enhance opacity, whiteness, and smoothness. Generally added to the liquid pulp mass, the most common fillers are mineral compounds such as kaolin or calcium carbonate. In finished papers, the filler content can be as high as 35 percent.


An oblong piece of wood with constant (and relatively small) cross-section, normally shaped to fit against a planed surface and most frequently profiled

Filling Up

A condition in which the ink fills the area between halftone dots or plugs up the type, such as in the letter “e.” Also called filling in.


A dark acetate material that has an emulsion side that is light sensitive. An image is formed on the film when exposed to light and then properly developed in a chemical.

Film Coating

A light coating added to paper, at the paper machine, for the purpose of improving the smoothness of some uncoated book grades.

Film Gauge

Thickness of film. The most common gauge for graphic arts film is 0.004 inch (0.1 mm).

Film Laminate

Thin sheet of plastic adhered to printed paper for protection.

Film Mechanical

A mechanical on which type and design elements in the form of film positives are stripped into position on a sheet of base film.

Film Positive

A positive imaged film material.

Film Presence Indicator Flag

Feature on Advanced Photo System cameras that indicates the film cassette has been loaded properly.

Film Reduction

Intentional around-cylinder compensation of the image to address flexographic plate printing characteristics.

Film Safe

Describes the fact that Advanced Photo System film is sealed in the cassette; avoids the danger of exposure to light before shooting and mishandling of negatives after shooting.

Film Speed

The measure of sensitivity of photographic film to light. The more sensitive the film is the faster it is.

Film Status Indicators

The four icons on Advanced Photo System film cassettes that show the film status – unexposed, partially exposed, fully exposed or processed.


An output device which produces film positives or negatives directly from Ripped data.


A colored piece of glass or other transparent material used over the lens to emphasize, eliminate, or change the color or density of the entire scene or certain areas within a scene.


Facing Identification Mark

A series of vertical bars printed in the upper right corner, to the left of the postage area on the mail piece. The bars are used by automated postal equipment to identify, separate and orient reply mail.

Final Count

Number of printed pieces delivered and charged for.

Final Negatives

Negatives that are right reading, emulsion down.

Final Proof

The last proof showing that is reviewed, approved, and signed and then sent to the printer.


A term used in online marketing that describes a web site’s ability to be found easily via the search engines, directories, and other online resources.


A viewing device on a camera to show the subject area that will be recorded on the film.

Also known as viewfinder and projected frame.


Badge and jewelry fasteners such as pins, clips and clasps.

  1. Of superior quality, skill, or appearance.
  2. Very sharp; keen: a blade with a fine edge.
  3. Exhibiting careful and delicate artistry.
  4. Trained to the highest degree of physical efficiency.
  5. Characterized by refinement or elegance.
Fine Binding

An elaborately designed book; for example, a book that is bound in leather with blind stamps and gilt edges.

Fine Etching

The process of etching dots on metal to correct tone values when making printing plates.

Fine Merchant, Fine Paper Distributor

Firm which confines its sales and distribution activities to fine printing papers only.

Fine Papers

A category of paper that includes grades for writing and printing as opposed to the more coarse and industrial grades of paper. Also referred to as graphic and cultural papers.

Fine Print
  1. A New York based company that has been recognized for perserving the print craft.

  2. A reference to imaginary small type in a policy contract supposedly containing exclusions, reductions, exemptions, and limitations of coverage. Most state laws include specifications for the minimum type size that can be used in a policy, and they also provide that exclusions cannot be printed in type smaller than that used to print the benefits.

  3. A small, often specialized element of a whole: detail, item, particular, technicality.

Fine Printer

A printer that perserves the carft of printing while upholding the standard of excellence
associated with such a title. Printing books, magazines, and art are some examples that
many people serach for a printer with such attention to detail.

Fine Screen

Screen with ruling of more than 150 lines per inch


A UNIX program that takes an e-mail address as input and returns information about that user. Some systems return information such as the user’’s full name, address, and telephone number.

On other systems, it only reports whether their user is currently logged on. Of course, the user must of first entered this information into the system.

Finger Joint, Glued Timber Joint

Glued length-wise jointing of timber pieces used in load-bearing structures


Printers ‘fingerprint’ their presses with a variety of different papers. In fact, they often have specific performance data for the combination of paper, press, and pre-press techniques being used. Printers can be invaluable in helping specify a sheet.


The surface characteristics of paper stock, such as luster, or texture which differs from grade to grade. Different finishes have varying degree of printability, smoothness, and ink receptivity.

Finished Art

Hand lettering, charts, color blocks, illustrations, photographs, etc., ready for camera.

Finished Size

The size of a printed product after all production operations have been completed.


Operations which happen to a document after it has left the press or printer. The finishing operations could include bindery work, such as folding, trimming, binding, die cutting, inserting or any post press process that must be completed.

Finishing Broke

Discarded paper resulting from any finishing operation.


A free software/open source, cross-platform graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Corporation.

Started as a fork of the browser component (Navigator) of the Mozilla Application Suite, Firefox has replaced the Mozilla Suite as the Mozilla Foundation’s flagship product.

Firefox is often abbreviated as FF; officially it is Fx or fx.


A system made up in either hardware or software, or a combination of both, that serve to permit or deny access to network resources.

Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets.

All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.


Refers to a serial interface with a high transfer rate in compliance with US standard IEEE 1394. This standard specifies transfer rates up to a maximum of 400 Mbit per second, though higher rates have been proposed for standardization.

FireWire interfaces are often used for connecting video cameras and similar products to computers, and increasingly for mass storage devices, scanners and other peripherals.

Firewire Cable/Port

An IEEE1394 connection allowing over 50 devices to be daisy-chained from a single port. It’’s speed is faster than parallel, serial, and USB (delivers 200 MBs for all devices or 25 MBs for single devices).

Firm Sale

Books supplied on this basis may not be returned unsold by the bookseller.

First & Second Printing Before Publication

This indicates the publisher was successful in promoting the book and had more orders before the actual publication date than the first printing quantity would cover, therefore a second printing was ordered.

Not a first edition.

First American Edition

The first edition published in the U.S. of a book that was previously printed elsewhere.

First British Edition

The first edition published in the United Kingdom of a book that was previously printed elsewhere. Also known as first U.K. edition.

First Class Mail

A mail class that includes written or typed matter, actual and personal correspondence, statements and bills, and any other matter that is sealed or closed in some manner that does not allow inspection. Anything mailable can be sent First Class.

First Color Down

The first color printed as the sheet passes through the press.

First Edition
  1. The first appearance of a work in book form.

Every printed book has a first edition but many never have later editions.

When book collectors use the term, they’re usually referring to the first printing and if there are different states or issues, the earliest of those. See also edition and high spot.

  1. Name of one of the major systems suppliers for Electronic Data Interchange.
First Edition Thus

An edition of a work that postdates the first edition and contains some modification to the work.

The modification might be a new introduction, added illustrations, new supplement, new format, and/or a revision of the text.

It can also refer to a first edition of the work by another publisher.

First Pressman

In the pressroom, the First Pressman is in charge of all functions, operations and personnel on his or her press. The First Pressman is responsible for registration and quality in general of product produced.

Normal duties also include supervision of weekly maintenance of the press and assisting in the training process for all press personnel.

First Read Rate

The percentage representing the number of successful reads per 100 attempts.

First Separate Edition

The first appearance as a complete book or pamphlet of a work that has previously appeared as part of another book.

First Serial Rights

The right to publish a serialized version of a work before the work in its entirety is actually published.

First Thus

Means not a first edition, but something is new. It may be revised, have a new introduction by the author or someone else, be the first publication in paperback form, or first by another publisher.

First Trade Edition

The edition produced for general commercial sale, as distinguished from a limited edition.

Fish Eyes

Round or oval deformations in an adhesive, coating or ink.


A symbol used in printing to indicate the index; seen as a pointing finger on a hand “+”.


The registration of the different colors on a printed sheet.

Five knife Trim

The term used when trimming apart two up double digest work on a saddle stitcher. Five separate knives are needed to trim books to the final size.

Fixed Beam Scanner

A stationary bar code scanner which employs a stationary light beam to read bar code symbols. Since the light beam is stationary, the barcode must be moved through the light beam to be read.

Fixed Costs

Costs that remain the same regardless of how many pieces are printed. Copyrighting, photography and design are fixed costs.

Fixed Field

A field which can contain only a specific number of characters.

Fixed Focus

A specific range of area is selected by the digital camera manufacturer to serve for the camera’’s focus. This may be 5 feet and beyond for which the focus is fixed and cannot be altered.

Fixed Font

Font in which all characters take up the same amount of space.

Fixed Location

An element whose position remains constant from issue to issue, for example, the name of magazine on the front cover of a periodical.

Fixed Spacing

The placement of characters on a line so that each of them takes up the same amount of space horizontally.

Fixed-Focus Lens

A lens that has been focused in a fixed position by the manufacturer. The user does not have to adjust the focus of this lens.


Chemical action following development to remove unexposed silver halide, to make the image stable and insensitive to further exposure.

Fixing Bath

A solution that removes any light-sensitive silver-halide crystals not acted upon by light or developer, leaving a black-and-white negative or print unalterable by further action of light.

Also referred to as hypo.


A strip of paper protruding from a roll or skid of paper. May be used to mark a splice in a roll of paper or used to mark off reams in a skid.


Uneven trimming at the head and foot of a saddle stitched or perfect bound book that cause some pages to have an overhang.Multiple inserts, dull knives, bad folds are some of the things that can cause this error.


A searing newsgroup, bulletin board, or e-mail message in which the writer attacks another participant in overly harsh, and often personal, terms.

Flame Polishing

A technique for smoothing and polishing the edges of a material using an open flame.

Flame Resistant Paper

A paper that will resist flames due to having been treated with a special chemical. It is not completely fireproof but it does not carry a flame and does not support combustion.

Flap Copy

The text that appears on the front or back flaps of a dust jacket.


An application developed by Macromedia Inc. for binding graphic animations into Internet pages. Macromedia offers various software tools for creating Flash animations. To view these animations, the Flash Player plug-in is required, which is available free of charge.

Flash Card Reader

Connected to the computer, the reader device will accept several types of cards for the downloading of image files. This will enable computers without built-in slots for cards to accept image files from digital cameras.

Flash Exposure

In halftone photography, the supplementary exposure given to strengthen the dots in the shadow areas of negatives.

Flash Fill

A setting on a digital camera’’s flash or the process of using the camera’’s flash to fill in shadowed areas that are low on light .

Flash Memory

Technology for storing images which uses semiconductor chips instead of magnetic media.

Flash Point

A term given to the lowest temperature of ignitibility of vapors given off by a substance.


Most screen printing on garments is done with wet ink going onto wet ink. Certain jobs and most dark garment prints need to have key colors (such as white) dried or cured before another color can print on-top of it.

On an automatic press a flash-curing heater replaces one of the print heads. Some jobs also need a short cool-down period before the next color is printed. Therefore, what appears to be a simple six color design with one flash-cure would need a minimum of eight printing stations – six for the colors, one for the flash heater and one for the cooldown.

Flash-curing will often slow the production cycle of the job.


Developed in 1995 by Kodak, Microsoft, HP and LivePicture, this image format allows you to save images in several different resolutions.

It supports multi-resolution images, continual downloads without loss of quality, and the use of metadata.


Too low in contrast. The range in density in a negative or print is too short.

  1. The assembled composite of negatives or positives ready for platemaking.

  2. It is also used to refer to camera-ready copy mounted and ready to be photographed.

  3. Used to describe a photograph that is lacking in contrast, seeming weak and lifeless.

Flat Assembly

Also known as Stripping – To assemble and combine film or negatives to produce the final film for platemaking. This process is now done electronically by many companies, bypassing the manual process altogether.

Flat Charge

A single price given for the full quantity ordered or for an added feature, opposed to a price given per M units.

Flat Color

Printing two or more colors on a sheet without having the color dots overlap each other to create a blend of colors. Differs from process color, which blends 4 colors to produce a broad range of colors.

Flat Cutter

A programmable machine used to cut stacks of flat sheets or books uniformly to any desired size. Also used to clamp count.

Flat Etching

The chemical reduction of the silver deposit in a continuous-tone or halftone plate, brought about by placing it in a tray containing an etching solution.

Flat Form

An electronic form that has been printed and will have information hand enter on it.

Flat Height

The top of the flat characters in a group of characters, such as the uppercase H height.

Flat Lighting

Lighting that produces very little contrast or modeling on the subject plus a minimum of shadows.

Flat Mailer

An insertion machine which accommodate 9” x 12” and 10” x 13” envelopes only.

Flat Pack

A continuous web folded at a cross perforation at regular intervals. See fan fold.

Flat Size

The size of a printed product after printing and trimming but before any finishing operations that affect its size, such as folding.

Flatbed Press

A press on which plates are positioned along a flat metal bed against which the paper is pressed by the impression cylinder, as compared to a rotary press which prints from curved plates.

Flatbed Scanner

A color scanner which has a flat surface on which the original is positioned as opposed to on the cylinder of a drum scanner.

Flatness (flat lying properties)

Refers to the extent to which paper lies horizontally.

  1. Often referred to as a classification of mail that exceeds one of the dimensions established for letters, such as flat sized mail for the Postal Service.

  2. Paper from the mill which comes in flat sheets that are larger than 17” x 22”.


Another term for deflection of rolls or cylinders in press. Also, bending qualities or characteristics of any material, including printing substrates.


A property of label stock which allows it to conform to the shape of the surface it is applied to.

Flexible Die

See magnetic die.

Flexible Engraving Material

A soft, pliable, bendable thermoplastic material that is easy to cut and engrave.


Condition that can occur on a die when the die circumference is less than the width of the cross-blades. Causes the center of the cross-blades to fail to cut properly and consistently.

Flexographic Printing

A printing process that involves the use of photopolymer wash-off printing (letterpress) or similar printing plates. Using low-viscosity ink it is possible to print on diverse materials with screen rulings of up to 54 l/cm.

Flexographic printing is a very fast, uncomplicated printing process suitable for package printing and multi-color newspaper printing.


A printing process using a raised surface on a flexible plate, often made of a rubber-like material, mounted on a rotary letterpress. Flexographic inks are very thin, watery inks that dry very quickly. The flexible plate makes it possible to print on irregular surfaces such as aluminum cans, coffee mugs, or corrugated cardboard.


A small promotional brochure or poster. Also spelled flyer.

Flip-Up Flash

See “Cobra” Flash.

Floating Accent

An accent mark which is set separately from the main character and is then placed either over or under it.

Flock Paper

Paper that is patterned by sizing, and than coated with powders of wool or cotton (flock).

Flood Coat

The coating of an entire surface with ink, adhesive, varnish or other coatings.

  1. Printing an entire sheet with ink or varnish.

  2. The overflow of ink from the ink fountain due to improper settings.


An offer made for a book by a publishing company on the basis that after an auction of the rights in which it does not participate it may exercise topping rights to secure the acquisition.


The base of the plate which supports the relief image of the plate. The floor is calculated by subtracting the relief from the total plate thickness.


Reversing a negative or transparency so that the image that was on the left side is now on the right.

Floppy Disk

A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (“floppy”) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell.

Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive or FDD, the latter initialism not to be confused with “fixed disk drive”, which is an old IBM term for a hard disk drive.

Once popular and now seldom used, it is recommended that all materials be burned to a CD.

Floppy Drive Adapter

A wireless connection using an adapter or disk holder to accomplish the file transfer.


A method of removing ink from paper during the deinking process.


The property of ink which causes it to level out when still a liquid; “short” inks have poor flow, and “long” inks have good flow.


A diagrammatic representation of a system, process, or abstract relationship. It is normally made up of labeled blocks or keyed symbols connected by lines.



An abbreviation used on mail container labels that identifies the contents as flat size.

Fluff Pulp

Special sulphate (kraft) or CTMP pulp that takes on a cotton-like appearance after dry defibration, used for absorbent materials such as nappies and feminine hygiene products

Fluid Ink

Also called liquid ink; ink with low viscosity.

Fluorescent Dye

A coloring agent added to pulp to increase the brightness of the paper. It may give a slight blue or green cast to the sheet.

Fluorescent Inks

Inks containing fluorescent pigments which makes them brighter and more opaque than the traditional inks.

Fluorescent Papers

Papers that have had fluorescent dyes added when they were manufactured. The fluorescent dyes produce a brilliance that appears brighter in natural daylight.


A style of binding in which the covers and leaves are the same size after binding.

Flush Cover

A cover that has been trimmed to be the same size as the pages inside.

Flush Left

Text aligned along the left margin.

Flush Paragraph

A paragraph with no indentation.

Flush Right

Text aligned along the right margin.

Flushed Pigment

The results of combining a wet ink pigment with a varnish and having the wet pigment mix or transfer over to the varnish.


Paper pleat between the walls in corrugated cardboard.

Fly Leaf
  1. An unprinted page in the front and back of a book that is not glued to the cover.

  2. In book binding of forms into sales books, the flyleaf is a flat cover, on the face of the book, which is not part of a wrap around cover. The flyleaf is attached with staples in the binding stub.

Fly Title

The extra page, in front of the title page, that bears the abbreviated title of the book.

In the days when books were sold as unbound leaves, the half-title served as a “cover” for the protection of the true title page.

Also known as Half-Title .


A small promotional brochure or poster. Also spelled flier.

Flying Imprinter

A device on a printing unit of a web press which allows for one plate to be changed without stopping the machine.

Flying Paster

In web printing, an automatic pasting device that splices a new roll of paper onto an expiring roll, without stopping the press.

FM screening

Frequency Modulated Screening

Screening method for the simulation of continuous tones involving the arrangement of same-size dots at varying distances. The number of dots in a defined area determines the color tone.

Though the quality of this kind of simulation is high and no moiré patterns are created, it requires somewhat better accuracy and care in platemaking and printing as well as different work methods. In addition, color areas sometimes appear grainy.


Free On Board or Freight On Board

A term indicating that a price quote includes loading a product on a railroad car, truck, aircraft or some other transport vehicle and transporting it to a designated location.

Further transportation from the designated location is not included.

Focal Length

The distance measured in millimeters (mm), from the optical center of the lens to the digital camera’’s image sensor when the lens is focused on infinity. It establishes the viewing angle (normal, wide angle, telephoto) of the lens.

Focal-Plane Shutter

An opaque curtain containing a slit that moves directly across in front of the film in a camera and allows image-forming light to strike the film.


The process of adjusting the image in a digital camera lens so it can be viewed clearly without distortion.

Focus Range

The range within which a camera is able to focus on the selected picture subject – 4 feet to infinity – for example.


An undesirable neutral density in the clear areas of a photographic film or paper, in which the image is either locally or entirely veiled by a deposit of silver. Fog may be due to flare, unsafe darkroom illumination, age, or processing conditions.


Darkening or discoloring of a negative or print or lightening or discoloring of a slide caused by

  1. Exposure to nonimage-forming light to which the photographic material is sensitive,

  2. Too much handling in air during development,

  3. Over-development,

  4. Outdated film or paper, or

  5. Storage of film or paper in a hot, humid place.

Fogging Back

Used in making type more legible by lowering density of an image, while allowing the image to show through.


Forschungsgesellschaft Druck

Established in Munich to promote printing technology, the association has its own institute with over 50 employees. Its responsibilities include research and development of quality control tools, knowledge exchange through printed materials, lectures, seminars, symposia and a literature database; collaborates in setting industry standards and provides assistance in the case of conflicts.


An extremely thin polyester film material containing a dry pigment that is transferred to paper by the use of heat and pressure. The material used in foil stamping.

Foil Blocking

Foil stamping, or foil blocking, is a printing process whereby metalic foil is applied to the printing substrate via a heated die.

Foil Laminate Paper

Paper that has a foil sheet laminated to it. There is generally a top coating added to improve printibility. Used for facestock on labels.

Foil Stamp

A printing process where a heated die is stamped onto a sheet of foil, causing the foil to release from the backer onto the material being printed.

Foilfast Printer

Powis Parker’s foil printer, which prints in foil from most office computers.

Foilfast Title Sheet

Adhesive sheets that match Powis Parker’s Suede and Comp Hardcovers. Designed to work with let you add foil printing to your books.


In bookbinding a sharp break or bend in the papers, generally performed by special machines. A distinction is made between right angle and parallel folds. In right angle folding the next fold is always at a right angle to the previous one.

In parallel folding, the first is always parallel to the second.

Fold Dummy

A sample mockup that shows page sequence, signature arrangement, orientation, binding edge and side edges.

Fold lay

A kind of lay employed in bookbinding; the angle at which printed sheets are fed by the bookbinder in order to ensure positioning and register accuracy when folding.

Fold Marks

Marks printed on a page to show where the folds are to be placed.

Fold Resistance

The ability of the paper to hold up to multiple foldings before breaking.

  1. A piece of equipment used to fold flat sheets into folded products.

  2. A device at the end of the press or collator that is used to fanfold continuous forms.


The process of bending printed sheets in a specific area so the sheets can then be formed into pamphlets, brochures, booklets or any other type of product requiring this process. See also Parallel Fold and Right Angle Fold.

Folding Boxboard


Multi-layer board, often mineral-coated, with an outer layer of sulphate (kraft) pulp and middle layer of mechanical pulp (groundwood, pressure groundwood or TMP; in top grades CTMP pulp may also be applied); used primarily for consumer cartons for packaging of dry and moist foods, cigarettes and other consumer products; also used in the graphic industry for catalogue covers, postcards and folders, etc.

Folding Endurance

A paper test which measures the number of double (back and forth) folds that can be made on a sheet of paper under tension, before it breaks.

Folding machines

Special machines used to fold printed materials. Knife folders employ a blunt edged knife to press the paper between two continuously moving rollers. The paper is caught between the rollers and carried away, a fold being made where the knife makes contact.

The buckle or plate folder feeds the paper end first between a pair of continuously revolving rollers. Both methods of folding can be combined in one machine, the combination folder.

Folding marks

Marks made to ensure register-true folding.

Folding scheme (or Folding Layout)

Specification of the number, direction and sequence of folds for an individual production job.


An page larger than trim size that is folded one or more times to fit into a book or magazine.

  1. A sheet folded once to make two leaves or four pages.

  2. A book that is up to 15” tall.

Folio Size

Any size sheet that is 17” x 22” or larger.


A complete set of upper and lower case characters, numerials, punctuation marks, and symbols of one specific typeface, size, and style.

Font Cache

A portion of printer memory that is used for storing fonts. It is used to store bitmapped fonts that have been generated from font outlines, making the it unnecessary to process the outline multiple times each time a particular character is needed, speeding up the process.

Font Family

All the fonts in one typeface. Includes bold and italic fonts and other weights available in that typeface plus a range of sizes.

Font Matching

A sometimes undesirable process used when a chosen font is not available, the closest possible match is made, sometimes causing reflow of the text or other errors.

Food Contact Adhesives

Adhesives meeting specified sections of the Food & Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations cover direct food labeling as well as incidental contact. Special product recommendations are necessary for specific applications.


The bottom area of a page.

Foot Trim

The area at the bottom portion of a page to be trimmed off.


A headline or title that appears at the bottom of a page.


Explanatory note inserted at the foot of the page referring to a point within the text, usually indicated by symbols such as asterisks and daggers or by superior numerals.

For Position Only


The use of low quality art or photos on a layout for the purpose of showing size and positioning only. The art would be replaced with high quality images before the finished product was produced.

Forced Development

(See Push-processing)


The outside edge of the book where the book opens (opposite of the spine). Also known as front-edge. See book anatomy section for illustration.

Fore-Edge Painting

A watercolor decoration, usually a scene or a geometric design, painted on the ends of the pages of the fore-edge of a book. Traditionally, the pages are painted so the decoration disappears when the book is closed and only appears again when the pages are fanned.

However, the opposite can also be true of a fore-edge painting; the decoration can appear only when the book is closed. The tradition of fore-edge painting dates back to the 10th century and reached its peak of popularity in England in the latter half of the 17th century.


The area between the camera and the principal subject.

Foreign Rights

A subsidiary right that allows the book to be translated and published in countries other than the one in which the book was originally published.


A plant community dominated by trees and other woody plants.

Forest Management

The practical application of biological, physical, quantitive, managerial, economic, social and policy principles to regeneration, management, utilization and conservation of forests to meet specified goals and objectives while maintaining the productivity of the forest.

Forest management includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban value, water, wildlife and wood products.

Forest Stewardship Council


The Forest Stewardship Council is an international not-for-profit organization that develops standards and certifies that wood harvesting and/or post consumer waste collection is done within their environmentally conscious standards from responsibly managed forests.


The profession embracing the science, art and practice of creating, managing, using and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner for human benefit.


Introductory remarks found in the front matter of a book, often written by someone other than the author.

  1. A printed or typed document with various fields in which information can be inserted.

  2. Text fields on Web pages that can be filled in and provide interactive query and response for users requesting information or wishing to supply feedback.

  3. The assembly of pages and other images for a single plate on a press. When printed and folded, the form is called a signature.

Form Letter

Used in word processing to describe a repetitive letter in which the names and addresses of individuals are automatically generated from a data base or typed individually.

Form Rollers

The rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press.

  1. The layout, style, size, margins and other aspects of the way the artwork for a printed product.

  2. To prepare a disk so that it can accept computer generated information.


The physical characteristics of the paper, which are determined by the structure and orientation of the fibers developed during the paper formation process when the paper is being made.

The paper’’s runnability, strength, and consistency in thickness throughout the sheet are affected by the uniformity of the distribution of fibers during the formation process. The squareness of the sheet is also determined during the formation process.

The squareness is affected by the grain direction ratio of the paper, which is the ratio of fibers that line up in the machine direction in comparison to the cross direction. A better refined formation process results in more uniform and smooth paper.

Desired end results and large variations in paper formation can be controlled by today’’s advanced formation technologies.


In printing, one side of assembled pages or other images for printing. In die-cutting, the wooden board in which the cutting, creasing and perforating rules are mounted.

Forms Bond

Lightweight bond paper manufactured for the printing of business forms, also referred to as register bond.

Forms Data

The lines, text, graphics, and logos that are all part of the form’’s design and because of this, are the same on every page.

Forms Description Language


A keyword oriented language that describes the appearance of forms including lines, boxes, text, etc.

Forms Input

The act of filling in a form with the use of a computer, by automatically moving from field-to-field by tabbing or the use of the return (enter) key.

The fields are defined for a specific type of entry on some systems, such as all alphabetic or all numeric, and incorrect entries are not accepted.

Forms Source Language


FDL source statements that are used in defining a form.

Formula Pricing

Printing prices based on standard papers, formats, ink colors, and quantities.

Fortune 500

The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 American public corporations as measured by gross revenue, although eligible companies are any for which revenues are publicly available (which is a larger universe than “public companies,” as the term is commonly understood, meaning “companies having common stock that trades on a stock exchange”). Fortune magazine compiles and publishes the list annually.

Fortune 100 is a frequently used term used to reference the top 100 firms in this same list, and Fortune 1000 refers to the top 1000 firms ranked according to the same methodology.

The Fortune 500 should not be confused with the S&P 500, which is a stock market index.
All numbers are based on revenue figures for each company’s previous fiscal year, which may end on different dates for each company.

Fortune Global 500

The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations as measured by revenue. The list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.

It differs from the Fortune 500 in that the latter only lists the top US corporations.

Only countries with five Global 500 companies or more are listed.


In the case book arena, the binding process which involves folding, rounding, backing, headbanding and reinforcing.

Fossil Fuels

Caron-based fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas formed from remnants of ancient plant and animal life. Fossil fuels are limited natural resources.


The unit on a press that contains ink to be fed to the distributing system, and the part that feeds the fountain solution to the dampening system.

Fountain Roll

Roll that picks up the ink or coating material from the fountain and applies it to the transfer roll.

Fountain Solution

In lithography, a solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink.

Four Colour

Or ‘four colour process’ using the four basic printing colours: cyan, magenta, yellow and black.

Four-Color Press

The four basic colors of ink (yellow, magenta, cyan, and black), which reproduce full-color photographs or art.

Four-color Process Printing

The process of reproducing full color printed images. The image must be converted to a set of halftone screened negatives which are a series of dots of various sizes. A halftone negative is made for each of the separate color components of the image (cyan, magenta, yellow, black).

These color separations are made into printing plates, one for each color and when printed, the overlapping dots of the color components reproduce a full color image. Also called full-color printing.

Four-Em Quad

A typographical unit of measurement corresponding to 36 points.

Four-panel fold

A sheet folded in half, creating four panels (the front and back of the two halves). It is also referred to as a fly fold.

Four-Sided Trim (4 Trim)

After the job is printed and folded, a trim will be taken off all four sides to remove any reference or registration marks and give a clean edge to the pile of sheets.


The imposition of four items to be printed on the same sheet in order to take advantage of full press capacity and minimize paper consumption.


A paper machine developed by Louis Robert and financed by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier that produces a continuous web of paper; also the term for the section of the paper machine which is a continuous “wire” or belt screen, through which the first removal of water occurs. The point of formation.


Refers to the condition of a book; intrinsic to paper, the patchy brownish-yellow spots that discolor plates and pages of a book.

It is most likely caused by lack of ventilation and/or chemical reactions between the paper and microorganisms.

The spots are generally found in 19th century books and can range from barely visible to ruinous.

Also known as foxed.


For Position Only

Refers to inferior quality copies of art or photos used on layouts to indicate size and placement, but not intended to be reproduced.


A black-letter typeface created in 1517; the most common typeface in Germany until the 20th century though also widespread in countries neighboring Germany to the east and southeast.

Its name (Latin for “broken”) was derived from the broken strokes made when the font was handwritten. Precursors to Fraktur are the Gothic and Schwabacher typefaces.


A rectangular area absolutely positioned on the display screen; also refers to a single section of a Web page specially coded.

Frame Bar

For the POSTNET bar code, the bar that is displayed at the beginning and the end of the entire bar code and considered the frame for the bar code. It provides the starting and stopping point that is detected as the document travels through the bar code sorter.

Frame Decision Lists


A file format used in publishing workflow that enables a more efficient and automated process for trapping procedures on new work and a memory capable of storing templates of previous work for future use.

Franked Mail

Also known as Free-Franked Mail. Mail that is sent from Government officials have “franking priviledges” allowing the mail to be sent free of postage.

Frankfurt Book Fair

The most important international book fair of the year, especially for the buying and selling of rights, held in Frankfurt at the beginning of October.


Refers to the condition of a book; the unraveling of the threads or fibers of an edge of a book cover that is caused by excessive rubbing.

Free Flowing Carbon

Carbon interleaved in a continuous form that is held in place by crimping along the edges of the form. No gluing is used.

Free On Board

A term indicating that a price quote includes loading a product on a railroad car, truck, aircraft or some other transport vehicle and transporting it to a designated location.

Further transportation from the designated location is not included.

Free Sheet

Paper manufactured with no more than 10% mechanical (groundwood) pulp. Most free sheet paper is completely free of mechanical pulp.


A professional graphics program produced by Macromedia. We use FreeHand for all of our graphic design work such as logos and drawings. We then either print directly from FreeHand or export the graphics to PageMaker or QuarkXPress.


To work on a client-by-client and job-by-job basis, as opposed to being employed full-time by one particular company.

Freelance Contract

The agreement between a publication and a freelance writer regarding rights purchased, kill fees, article length, etc.

Freelance Writer

Writer whose work is published in a variety of media, but is self-employed instead of being a staff member.


A term used to define how quickly water is drained from the pulp. The opposite of freeness is slowness. Freeness or slowness is the function of beating or refining.

Freeness and slowness reported in ml CSF and degree SR respectively are also the measurement of degree of refining or beating.


Software available free of charge for download and use on the Internet or through users groups. Also referred to as Public Domain Software.

Freezer Adhesive

An adhesive designed to work on hard to label surfaces in below freezing temperatures. It is generally removable at room temperature.

Freight On Board

A term indicating that a price quote includes loading a product on a railroad car, truck, aircraft or some other transport vehicle and transporting it to a designated location. Further transportation from the designated location is not included.

French Fold

A sheet which has been printed on one side only and then folded twice in right angles to form a four page uncut section.


The number of lines per inch in a halftone screen.

Frequently Asked Questions


A listing of the most commonly received queries on a website to which users may refer to in order to check if their question has already been asked and to hopefully get an answer.


A halo that appears around halftone dots.

Front -Of-The-Book

The beginning pages of a magazine, usually consisting of shorter editorial material, such as columns and departments.

Front End System
  1. The computer hardware and software used to create pages with text and graphics.

  2. In client/server applications, the client part of the program is often called the front end and the server part is called the back end.

Front Free-Endpaper

The free or loose half of the pasted-down double leaf that is found at the very beginning of a book.

The other half of the leaf, the pasted down portion, is attached to the board.

Front List

Newly released books, as opposed to back list, which are previously published titles still available from the publisher.

Front Matter

All pages and material that appear before the text of a book, including the bastard title, full title, imprint, dedication, table of contents, foreword, unprinted pages, etc.

Front Plate

An illustration that faces the title page, also called a frontispiece.

Front Porch

The access point to a secure network environment which is also know as a firewall.

Front trim

The trim employed for magazines and booklets with multiple folded, inserted signatures in order to create an even edge; must be taken into consideration in the design stage.

Front-End Premium

A premium that is sent with a mailing that includes a product or service offer, or that is requesting a donation. Generally intended to be an incentive to respond to the offer or donation request.


An illustration placed before the first pages of a book that usually faces the title page.


Light shining on the side of the subject facing the camera.


Forest Stewardship Council


Forms Source Language

FDL source statements that are used in defining a form.


File Transfer Protocol

A TCP/IP protocol that is commonly used for transferring files from computer to computer. FTP requires a user ID and possibly a password to gain access.

Fugitive Colors

Ink that do not hold their color. Colors fade or change when exposed to light.

Fugitive Glue

A type of glue that is used when a more temporary bond is desired. It can provide an adequate seal when used on a mailer but also allow the recipient to easily open it when received.

Fugitive glue is also used on multiple part forms when parts of the form need to be separated from the rest of the set. Fugitive glue is not resealable.

Fugitive Inks

Colors that lose tone and permanency when exposed to light.


The storing and releasing of customer materials. Items are stored and records are maintained on the inventory levels. Items are pulled from stock and release upon customer’’s request. Also referred to as “Pick and Pack”.

Fulfillment House

A company that specializes in processing and servicing orders resulting from direct mail, telephone and fax responses. They maintain inventory and send out the appropriate merchandise, samples and information.

Full Binding

A binding in which the spines and boards are uniformly covered with the same material.

Full Bleed

Printing that goes to the edge of all four sides of the page.

Full Coated Carbon

Carbon paper that has the carbon coating covering the entire surface. Also referred to as All Over Coat.

Full Ink Coverage

The smallest quantity of ink that can completely cover the surface of a particular printing stock with no visible gaps.

In offset printing full ink coverage for smooth coated art papers is 1.5 to 2 gsm, and for uncoated papers it is around 3 gsm.

Full Measure

A line of type set to the entire line length.

Full Point

A full stop.

Full Position

Premium placement for an advertisement that normally appears after and/or next to editorial material.

Full Scale Black

A black separation that has dots printing in all areas of the picture, including the highlight areas and the shadow areas.

Full-color Printing

The process of reproducing full color printed images. The image must be converted to a set of halftone screened negatives which are a series of dots of various sizes. A halftone negative is made for each of the separate color components of the image (cyan, magenta, yellow, black).

These color separations are made into printing plates, one for each color and when printed, the overlapping dots of the color components reproduce a full color image. Also called four-color process printing.

Full-Color Process

CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) The standard color model used in the printing process. Same as four color process.

Full-Range Halftone

Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.

Full-Text Database

A database where individual records contain the complete text of articles, chapters, newspapers, etc. Sometimes includes graphs, photos, and other images.

Fully Bleached Pulp

Pulp that has been bleached to the highest brightness attainable

Fully Saturated

Photographer term for rich color.


A general computer programming term for a particular kind of subroutine.


The mixture of fiber and other materials that is blended in the water suspension, or slurry, from which paper or board is made; usually about 1% solid material with 99% or the balance being water.

Further Processed

Treated industrially or chemically to gain added value

Fuser Oil

Oil that is used to prevent laser printer toner from sticking to the heating element.

Fuser oil can cause problems when binding because it leaves a fine layer of oil on a sheet, which can prevent the binding adhesive from coming in full contact with the paper.

Fuzz (Fluff)

Loose fibers projecting from a paper’s surface.

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